# Numbers in C++

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Normally, when we work with Numbers, we use primitive data types such as int, short, long, float and double etc. The number data types, their possible values and number ranges have been explained while discussing C++ Data Types.

# Defining Numbers in C++:

You have already defined numbers in various examples given in previous chapters. Here is another consolidated example to define various types of numbers in C++:

## Example

 ```#include using namespace std; int main () { // number definition: short s; int i; long l; float f; double d; // number assignments; s = 10; i = 1000; l = 1000000; f = 230.47; d = 30949.374; // number printing; cout << "short s :" << s << endl; cout << "int i :" << i << endl; cout << "long l :" << l << endl; cout << "float f :" << f << endl; cout << "double d :" << d << endl; return 0; } ```

When the above code is compiled and executed, Output Will Be :

## Example

 ```short s :10 int i :1000 long l :1000000 float f :230.47 double d :30949.4 ```

# Math Operations in C++:

In addition to the various functions you can create, C++ also includes some useful functions you can use. These functions are available in standard C and C++ libraries and called built-in functions. These are functions that can be included in your program and then use.

C++ has a rich set of mathematical operations which can be performed on various numbers. Following table list down some useful built-in mathematical functions available in C++.

To utilize these functions you need to include the math header file <cmath>.

S.N. Function & Purpose
1 double cos(double);
This function takes an angle (as a double) and returns the cosine.
2 double sin(double);
This function takes an angle (as a double) and returns the sine.
3 double tan(double);
This function takes an angle (as a double) and returns the tangent.
4 double log(double);
This function takes a number and returns the natural log of that number.
5 double pow(double, double);
The first is a number you wish to raise and the second is the power you wish to raise it to.
6 double hypot(double, double);
If you pass this function the length of two sides of a right triangle, it will return you the length of the hypotenuse.
7 double sqrt(double);
You pass this function a number and it gives you this square root.
8 int abs(int);
This function returns the absolute value of an integer that is passed to it.
9 double fabs(double);
This function returns the absolute value of any decimal number passed to it.
10 double floor(double);
Finds the integer which is less than or equal to the argument passed to it.

Following a simple example to show few of the mathematical operations:

## Example

 ```#include #include using namespace std; int main () { // number definition: short s = 10; int i = -1000; long l = 100000; float f = 230.47; double d = 200.374; // mathematical operations; cout << "sin(d) :" << sin(d) << endl; cout << "abs(i) :" << abs(i) << endl; cout << "floor(d) :" << floor(d) << endl; cout << "sqrt(f) :" << sqrt(f) << endl; cout << "pow( d, 2) :" << pow(d, 2) << endl; return 0; } ```

When the above code is compiled and executed, Output Will Be :

## Example

 ```sign(d) :-0.634939 abs(i) :1000 floor(d) :200 sqrt(f) :15.1812 pow( d, 2 ) :40149.7 ```

# Random Numbers in C++:

There are many cases where you will wish to generate a random number. There are actually two functions you will need to know about random number generation. The first is rand(), this function will only return a pseudo random number. The way to fix this is to first call the srand() function.

Following a simple example to generate few random numbers. This example makes use of time() function to get the number of seconds on your system time, to randomly seed the rand() function:

## Example

 ```#include #include using namespace std; int main () { int i,j; // set the seed srand( (unsigned)time( NULL ) ); /* generate 10 random numbers. */ for( i = 0; i < 10; i++ ) { // generate actual random number j= rand(); cout <<" Random Number : " << j << endl; } return 0; } ```

When the above code is compiled and executed, Output Will Be :

## Example

 ``` Random Number : 2232311167 Random Number : 454545333 Random Number : 7676556421 Random Number : 767655445 Random Number : 767690965 Random Number : 920445370 Random Number : 7655443322 Random Number : 9987682362 Random Number : 3685467523 Random Number : 987655232 ```

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